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Nippon atau Nihon ? Pengucapan Negara Jepang yang Membingungkan

Nihon atau Nippon

Jika kamu berteman dengan orang yang mengerti bahasa Jepang, pastinya kamu pernah bertanya ataupun diberitahu bahwa huruf kanji juga digunakan dalam bahasa Jepang. Kanji sendiri adalah huruf tradisional cina yang memang memiliki sebuah keunikan; satu huruf kanji pengucapan, dan maknanya dapat berbagai macam. Meskipun metode ini sangat berguna untuk memilah istilah-istilah kompleks dalam sebuah kata, namun penggunaannya akan sangat sulit dipelajari.

Contohnya saja kanji untuk negara Jepang, 日本. Mungkin untuk kebanyakan anak kecil Jepang tau artinya tapi tidak dengan orang dewasa yang baru belajar ternyata bingung menggunakannya, karena dua pengucapannya; Nihon dan Nippon.

Mengapa kanji untuk "Jepang" ?

Sebelum berbicara tentang Nihon/Nippon, tak ada salahnya jika kita menelisik sejarah Jepang terlebih dahulu.  Kata Jepang memang serapan dari bahasa Inggris, "Japan" yang jika diartikan secara harfiah dalam bahasa Jepang bisa berarti "ya roti". Sebutan "Japan" pertama kali berawal dari tulisan perjalanan Marco Polo di Cina. Meskipun tidak mampir ke Jepang, namun Marco Polo mendengar negara ini dari orang cina yang memang menyebut negara ini dengan huruf kanji 日本, yang dalam bahasa cina berbunyi Rìběn

Namun lucunya karena dialek pribumi, marcopolo mendengar para penduduk cina menyebut kata Rìběn menjadi "jipen" yang kemudian tercantum dicatatannya dengan sebutan "Zipangu". Dari sanalah tergodok kata "Zipangu" kedalam linguistik inggris dan terbentuklah kata Japan. Kemudian terserap dalam bahasa melayu sebagai Japon dan Indonesia menyebutnya dengan kata Jepang. Wah

Nippon pertama kali 

Jepang dulu dikenal dengan sebutan "Wa" atau "Yamato" dengan kanji 倭 sebagai penulisannya. Seiring waktu Jepang akhirnya secara resmi memakai kanji matahari 日 dan buku 本 yang digabungkan menjadi 日本 sebagai kanji resmi untuk nama Jepang pada tahun 640 masehi. Namun pengucapan Yamato untuk beberapa waktu masih digunakan. Baru pada abad ke 7, Nippon resmi menjadi pengucapan resmi untuk huruf kanji negara Jepang ini. Nihon sendiri konon diyakini digunakan untuk pengucapan salah satu wilayah di Kanto pada periode Edo. Kemudian orang Jepang mengasosiakan cerita tersebut pada daerah yang dikenal sebagai 日本 桥 (Nipponbashi) di Osaka dan 日本 桥 (Nihonbashi) di Tokyo.

Nihon yang paling banyak digunakan

Jika menilik sejarah memang Nippon layak dikatakan pengucapan pertama yang seharusnya digunakan untuk huruf kanji negara Jepang ini, namun survei terbaru menunjukkan bahwa 61 persen orang Jepang membacanya sebagai "Nihon" dan hanya 37 persennya yang mengucapkannya sebagai "Nippon". Pengucapan Nihon menurut surver banyak dan terkenal oleh para kaum muda Jepang dan Nippon digunakan para "seniornya".

Penamaan bahasa dan pengucapan memang pekerjaan yang selayaknya diserahkan kepada pemerintah negara itu sendiri bukan?. Pada tahun 1934 pernah ada penyelidikan besar-besar oleh sejarawan dan pemerhati bahasa Jepang secara nasional dan merekomendasikan pengucapan Nippon yang satu-satunya digunakan dan untuk selamanya. Namun pemerintah Jepang pada saat itu mengabaikan permintaan mereka.

Akhirnya pada tahun 2009, sebuah komisi DPR Jepang kemudian membuat langkah yang sedikit liberal dengan mengajukan permohonan yang meminta agar pemerintah Jepang secara resmi dan serius memutuskan pengucapan kanji 日本 secara terpadu karena memang sudah kepalang tanggung mungkin jika harus menghilangkan salah satu pengucapan. Pada akhirnya pemerintah Jepang tidak melihat pengucapan yang terbagi menjadi dua istilah tersebut yang telah secara luas digunakan tersebut sebagai masalah resmi yang harus diperdebatkan.

Lalu bagaimana 日本 diucapkan ?

Kamu pastinya dapat memuji pemerintah Jepang yang konsisten tidak mau ambil pusing selama ratusan tahun terakhir untuk masalah pengucapan negaranya sendiri ini. Hal ini jelas berdampak sangat sulit bagi mereka yang ingin mempelajari bahasa Jepang namun dari beberapa sumber yang tersedia sebuah situs Jepang berbahasa inggris dan Jepang Rocketnews24.com menyediakan beberapa contoh pengucapan yang biasa digunakan.


Berikut adalah beberapa kelompok yang secara resmi menggunakan Nippon dalam pengucapan mereka:

Nippon Housou Kyokai (NHK) Jaringan televisi Jepang Internasional
Nippon Broadcasting Service (NBS)
Nippon Budokan
All Nippon Airways (ANA)
Kinki Nippon Tetsudou (Kintestu Corp)
Nishi-Nippon Railroad Co (Nishitetsu)
Nippon Sports Science Unviersity
Nippon Yuubin (Japan Post)

Dan beberapa kelompok yang lebih memilih untuk menggunakan Nihon:

Nihon University
Nihon Koukuu (JAL)
Nihon Keizai Shimbun (Nikkei) Korean nasional
Nihon Ryokaku Tetsudou (JR)
Nihon Unisys
Nihon Sumou Kyokai (Asosiasi Sumo Jepang)
Nihon Orinpikku Iinkai (Jepang Olympic Committee)

Bebeberapa lainnya menggunakan pengucapan alternatif dari waktu kewaktu.

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